12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times


Claims that modern temperatures are globally warmer than they were during Medieval times (~800 to 1250 A.D.) have been contradicted by a flurry of new (2019) scientific papers.

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Southern Ocean/SE Pacific (SSTs)

The (1100 years BP) was 1.5°C warmer than today (14°C vs. 12.5°C) in the SE Pacific or Southern Ocean.

Collins et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 1 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Antarctica/Southern Ocean (SSTs)

Elephant seals used to breed on the Victoria Land Coast ~1000 years ago because there was open water access back then whereas this region is locked in sea ice today. To escape the reach of modern sea ice, elephant seal breeding colonies are now located ~2,400 km further north (sub-Antarctic islands) of where they bred during Medieval times.

Koch et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 2 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Peru coastal region (SSTs)

There has been a rapid drop (approximately -1°C to -1.5°C) in sea surface temperatures during the last 50 years near the coast of Peru. 1-2°C warmer temperatures persisted ~1,000 years ago and there were 4°C warmer temperatures during the Mid-Holocene in this region.

Salvatteci et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 3 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Canadian Arctic (SSTs)

During the , bowhead whales occupied Canadian Arctic waters that are today sea ice-covered and inaccessible. During the Mid-Holocene (5000 to 3000 years ago), bowhead whales swam in the open-water Canadian Arctic.

Szpak et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 4 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Mediterranean region

No warming during 1955-2013 is apparent in the northeastern Mediterranean region. There were far more prevalent warm extremes during the Medieval Warm Period than during the last 450 years (including just one single high temperature extreme year since 1900).

Klippel et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 5 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 6 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Greenland Ice Sheet

Greenland was at least 1°C warmer during Medieval times. The ice sheet cooled by nearly 2°C from the 1930s to 1980s.

Adamson et al., 2019 (citing Kobashi et al., 2017).12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 7 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Pacific, Atlantic Ocean (heat content)


“Finally, we note that OPT-0015 indicates that ocean heat content was larger during the Medieval Warm Period than at present”

Gebbie and Huybers, 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 8 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 9 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Northeastern China 

Modern mean annual temperatures range between 0.0 to 0.5°C, whereas Medieval Warm Period mean annual temperatures ranged between 2-6°C and Holocene Thermal Maximum temperatures reached 10.5°C.

Liu et al., 2019

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Russia (360 km NW of Moscow)

Today’s mean annual temperatures are 4.1°C. During Medieval times mean annual temperatures were about 5°C, and during the Holocene Thermal Maximum mean annual temperatures were 2°C warmer than today.

Novenko et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 11 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Alaska (western, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta)

This region was about 1°C warmer during Medieval times and has undergone an overall cooling trend of about -0.7°C since 1800.

Sae-Lim et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 12 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

Antarctica (Whole)

Antarctica was approximately 0.5 to 1°C warmer than today during the entire 1st millennium, and the modest warming in the last century has in recent decades turned into a non-warming or cooling trend for West Antarctica, the Antarctic Peninsula, and East Antarctica.

Lüning et al. 2019

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South China Sea

The South China Sea was about 0.5°C to 0.7°C warmer during Medieval times and still warmer than today during the Little Ice Age.

Lee et al., 2019

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 14 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 15 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

12 new papers provide robust evidence the earth was warmer during medieval times 16 - 12 New Papers Provide Robust Evidence The Earth Was Warmer During Medieval Times

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